B2 Lesson 5.1 | Audio Lesson

Grammar

Conjunctive adverbs

Conjunctive adverbs are used to connect two independent clauses. Normally, adverbs modify a verb, adjective or another adverb but in this case they are used to link two ideas. This can be done in the following ways:

 

  1. Two independent clauses in one sentence – semicolons

When the conjunctive adverb connects two independent clauses in one sentence, we use a semicolon and a comma to connect the clauses. The semicolon is placed after the first clause and before the conjunctive adverb and the comma is placed after the conjunctive adverb. See the examples below.

He decided that he had to laugh about the situation; otherwise, he would have started crying.

She rejected the job because it was poorly paid; furthermore, the boss had given her the creeps.

 

 

  1. Starting a single independent clause – commas

When the conjunctive adverb starts a sentence, it is followed by a coma.

I was tired and in a bad mood. Therefore, I went to bed.

I was sure I was going to fail the exam. Nevertheless, I took it and did my best.

 

 

  1. Modifying a sentence – commas

When a conjunctive adverb interrupts a sentence in order to modify it, we put commas before and after the adverb.

The presentation, on the other hand, was a huge success.

Fred, meanwhile, was busy with his new album.

 

 

Conjunctive adverb

Example sentence

consequently He was distracted; consequently, he missed by some distance.
furthermore She rejected the job because it was poorly paid; furthermore, the boss had given her the creeps.
however He gave his best. However, he didn’t get the job.
by comparison / in comparison James, by comparison, always loved the opera.
meanwhile Fred, meanwhile, was busy with his new album.
moreover The price of the ticket put him off buying it; moreover, he really needed to study for his final exams.
nevertheless I was sure I was going to fail the exam. Nevertheless, I took it and did my best.
on the other hand The presentation, on the other hand, was a huge success.
otherwise He decided that he had to laugh about the situation; otherwise, he would have started crying.
therefore I was tired and in a bad mood. Therefore, I went to bed.

 

Verb conjugations

These are the conjugations of the new verbs we cover in this lesson.

Infinitive

Past simple

Past participle

assure

assured

assured

claim

claimed

claimed

 

 

 

 

Vocabulary

Emails and letters

  • Nouns

Claim Reference
  • Adjectives

Prompt  

 

 

  • Verbs

Claim Assure

 

 

  • Adverbs

Anyhow Sadly Frankly
Promptly Personally

 

 

  • Phrases

I/We appreciate… The last At your convenience
As for The latter With respect to sth
At least The main thing With/in reference to sth
Change the subject The other way round/around In writing
Cheers! Those who/which/that In response to
The point Worst of all What …for?
I only hope (that) … /I only wish … (that) Even if What struck me/the first thing that struck me…
Look forward to sth/doing sth Generally/personally Wherever possible
Dear Madam Whenever possible Why should/shouldn’t…?
Dear Sir In the near future Yet again
Yours faithfully  

 

  • Pronouns

Whatever